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Computer fundamental



                                Definition of computer


defination of computer

Last us first, define the term computer. the computer is defined in  the OXFORD dictionary as “An automatic electronic apparatus for making a calculation or controlling operations that are expressible in numerical or logical terms”

The term the computer is derived from the word compute . in simple words, a computer is an electronics devise which takes input from the user I form in from of data and instructions. Once the computer obtains the data, it waits for the user’s instructions from the user, the computer process the data generates some output and display to the user.


By data we mean any un-useful or meaningless text , number audio and images which do not provide any help to the user, when computer process data and convert it into a from that is useful and meaningful for the user, it becomes information.

A computer is an electronics device that manipulates information, or data, it has the ability to store, retrieve and process data,


  •       Input: sending the data and command to the computer is known as input.
  •       Processing: work done by the computer with the help of processing hardware and software to produce a result is known as processing
  •       Output:- any  information that has been processed and comes from a computer or computer device is considered output.
  •       Storage:- a place to save the result inside the computer is known as storage         If you look at your computer then you realize there is not any single device which is a known computer. a computer can be considered as a system of hardware device and software interact with each other and generating output to the user.



There are different types of computer


These are:-


Analog computer
An analog computer is a device that performs computing using continuous physical various which are analogs of the actual items being computed, analog computers might, for exam use the continuous rotation of gears or the angular movements of mechanical electromechanical parts to perform computations.

Digital computer
Digital computer process information which is essential in a binary or two-state forms name zero and one. When talking about computers, we mostly refer to the digital type of computer electronic machines.
Digital computers fail into ranges called microcomputers, microcomputers , mainframe supercomputer, classified in ascending order of size – small, medium, large and very large.



Hybrid computer

These computers are a combination of both digital and analog computers. In this type of computers, the digital segments perform process control by conversion of analog signals to digital ones.

Mainframe computer
Large organizations use mainframes for highly critical applications such as bulk data processing and ERP. Most of the mainframe computers have capacities to host multiple operating systems and operate as a number of virtual machines. They can substitute for several small servers

Microcomputer
A computer with a microprocessor and its central processing unit is known as a microcomputer, they  do not occupy space as much as mainframes do. When supplemented with a keyboard and a mouse, microcomputers can be called personal computers. a monitor keyboard and other similar input-output device computer memory in the form of RAM and a power supply unit comes packaged in a microcomputer these computers  can fit on desks or tables and prove to be the best choice for single-user tasks.

Desktop computer
A desktop computer is intended to be used in a single location. the spare parts of a desert computer are readily available at relatively lower costs. Power consumption is not as critical on laptops. desktop computers are widely popular for daily use in the workplace households


Laptops
Similar in operations to desktop computers, a laptop computer is miniaturized and optimized mobile use. laptops run on a single battery or an external adapter that charges the computer's batteries. they are enabled with an inbuilt keyboard, touchpad acting as a mouse and a liquid crystal display. Their portability and capacity to operate on battery power have proven to be of great help to mobile users

Personal computers
A PC  is your personal computer, you can look at your computer in two basic ways : from a physical viewpoint and from a functional viewpoint . the physical viewpoint uses terms for parts that you can point to for example  to power supply







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